A list of words that can be considered the opposite of progress. Consumers can use many sources, e.g., family, friends, neighbours, opinion leaders, and acquaintances. Theory of Consumer Behavior: There are two main approaches to the of consumer behavior of demand. For example, when a company introduces a new model of mobile phone, it may run a series of TV commercials and press advertisements. In order to know the post-purchase behaviour, the following questions need to be answered: i. According to Trait Theory, traits are considered as the basic factors which decide the response of people. Learning refers to changes in behaviour brought about by practice or experience. A satisfied customer may make repeat purchases. Equal- Housing, vacation, outside entertainment. (2) Buyers level of involvement determines why he/she is motivated to seek information about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others. It refers to a set of learned beliefs, values, attitudes, morals, customs, habits and forms of behaviour that are shared by a society. (b) Many companies have come out with religious calendars with illustrations of their products and such calendars are preserved for a long time. Examples include cars, homes, computers, education. W. Fred van Raaij, Tilburg University. Kendra Cherry. Wife dominance- Washing machines, carpenting, kitchenware. Used when product is unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently purchased; for example – buying a new car once every five years. According to the theory, specifi… The different theories on consumer behavior and the relevant research conducted on the understanding of the consumer behavior. Consumer psychologists study a … 2. The Psychology Behind Consumer Behavior By. The government provides infrastructural and transportation facilities on preferential basis. The inputs are basically marketing-mix components that consist of the product, packaging, branding, and advertisement, personal selling, pricing of the product, distribution channel to move the product from the place of production to place of consumption, i.e., the consumer. She may also play the role of a secretary of an association. He may have costly furniture. The model tries to represent the rational brand choice behaviour by buyers when faced with situations involving incomplete information and limited abilities. The purchase decision may be influenced by attitudes of spouse, friends and relatives, cost of the product, benefits of the product, etc. This paper will adopt a sociological approach to consumer behavior, and will develop a typology of consumers' behaviors incorporating the concepts of norms, values, and social organizations. MOTIVATION-NEED THEORIES AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR. ), members of the family, social classes and cultural factors. Role of Family in Shaping Consumer Behaviour. Here consumers often do brand switching for the sake of variety, for example – biscuits. Roles are the activities of the person in a group. This model also explains the fact that acceptability to users is dependent on two key factors such as pe… For example, the effects of the rat’s lever-pressing behaviour (i.e., receiving a food pellet) influences the probability that it will keep pressing the lever. Kendra Cherry. Consumer behavior incorporates ideas from several sciences including psychology, biology, chemistry, and economics. The shift from selling age to marketing age meant that customer’s needs be given priority over the hard-sell tactics. What is consumer Interest ? DEFINING A MODEL OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR --- it is an attempt to structure the internal and external factors that affect the decision making process • Predicting consumers behavior • Sales of new products • Choosing the optimal location • Selection of the media … Personality is defined as the person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to his or her environment. In the case of consumer durables like air-conditioner, television, water purifier, after-sales service is important to achieve high level of customer satisfaction. ], some meaningful prediction of their actions can be achieved". These relate to the reasons why consumers buy one class of goods rather than another. Copyright 10. The buyer’s behaviour is shaped by his attitudes and beliefs, motivation, perception, personality, etc. A consumer who has a balanced ID, Ego and Super Ego exhibits a balanced approach in all their decision pertaining to purchase of products. For each and every segment a separate marketing programme is required. Stimulus-Response Model of Consumer Behaviour: A very simple psychological model of human behaviour is that stimulus leads to response (S-R). The definition of consumer research with examples. Models of Consumer Decision Making 6. The model centres around the “product” and “income” of the “consumer” and closely related psychological and sociological factors have been ignored. To understand a buyer needs and convert them into customers is the main purpose of the consumer behavior study. Types of Consumer Problem-Solving Processes. Almost everything one does or thinks is learned. People buy different goods and services over their lifetime. Theories. The shift has occurred with availability of more choice compared to pre 1991 era. Consumer Behaviour: Meaning/Definition and Nature of Consumer Behaviour! Consumer Behavior. Buyer behaviour, hence, is stimulated by motivation. Motivation is the drive to act, to move, to obtain a goal or an objective. On the other hand, a dissatisfied customer may abandon or return the product and may take action against the company. The definition of materialism with examples. A list of words that can be used as the opposite of polite. Involvement of consumers can be induced by external sources and agencies. Fact checked by. He influences other members of the group. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Motivation is the driving force which makes the person act. Husband dominance- Life insurance, automobiles, television. Are there any other benefits that the consumer is seeking from the product? Each culture consists of smaller sub-cultures that provide more specific identification and socialisation for its members. The husband might make the final decision and the children will be seeing the television most. Hence, the reason for the popularity of the toothpowder. The study of Consumer behaviour is very useful for dealers and salesmen. Self-concept has three parts- (1) the idealised self — what you would like to be? Examples include Clothes—know product class but not the brand. There are several important elements in the process of evaluation: (a) A product is viewed as a bundle of attributes. (e) Occasionally, consumers may use an evaluation process permitting trade-offs among different alternatives. The members of the family play different role such as influencer, decider, purchaser, and user in the buying process. For example, a birthday gift-giving ritual can be made up of sub-rituals that start with the buying and may end with how the wrapping is disposed. "2 This field is often considered a subspecialty of industrial-organizational psychologyand is also known as the psychology of consumer behavior or the psychology of marketing. The occupation of a person decides his ability to buy. Example of Consumer Theory Let’s look at an example. A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. A reference group is the group whose perspective an individual takes on in forming values, beliefs, attitudes, opinions and overt behaviours. Also learn about: 1. Reference groups influence the consumers in three different ways: i. Example- An executive working in a multinational bank may prefer branded shirts/trousers, expensive watches, perfumes and drive a car to reach office. If the consumer is not satisfied with the product then he is said to be disappointed. Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour: Consumer behaviour is affected by a number of factors. (b) Information cues or hints about a set of characteristics of the product in brands such as quality, price, distinctiveness availability, etc. Although marketers must focus on all types of reference groups, but targeting the opinion leaders is important. A list of words that are the opposite of support. The definition of consumer culture with examples. Consumer behaviour involves both individual (psychological) processes and group (social) processes. Hence, his need-satisfaction depends on his occupation, which provides him the means. It includes problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives and benefits that lead to a buying decision. Attitudes interact with perception, thinking, feeling, and reasoning. The Government is one of the prominent ones among these factors which have considerable bearing on the marketing decision-making. To lament that the field of consumer behavior suffers from shortage of good theories has long become a popular claim within our discipline. After analysing the behaviour of the consumer a marketer can offer better goods and services to the consumer than that being offered by the competition. Important patronage motives are those concerned with fashion, exclusiveness, dependable after-sales service, convenience of location, quality, price, reliability of the seller, punctuality in delivery, variety of selection, etc. ii. 2001) are two of the most widely cited analytical models”. Marketing management should offer appropriate cues to promote the sale of the product. Selection is based on such motives as the desire for both economy and convenience. But the possibility of a trial purchase is not available in all cases. The consumer develops positive opinion towards a product or service based on admiration (Cricket players) and aspiration (Film stars) or empathy. Jeff Bray Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models 1.1 Consumer behaviour & consumer decision making Consumer decision making has long been of interest to researchers. 4. A person’s behaviour depends upon his occupation. Example- Many health conscious people believe that Cola drinks are harmful and they prefer lassi, lime juice, cocoanut water or even mineral water. High degree of economic/performance/psychological risk. They have very high influence on purchase decisions. By understanding how consumers decide on a product it is possible for marketers to fill in the gap and identify which product is needed and which products are obsolete in the market. Consumer behavior is the study of consumers and the processes they use to choose, use (consume), and dispose of products and services, including consumers’ emotional, mental, and behavioral responses. They influence attitude and self-concept. The Government becomes a manufacturer or a monopoly buyer and/or seller. Understanding consumer behavior is a vital aspect of marketing. A person’s behaviour is also influenced by his/her spouse and children. Consumer behaviour study helps the marketers in facing intense competition in the market. Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that when a brand does not meet expectation, consumers will disbelieve the negative information received. Study of Post-Purchase Behaviour of Consumers: Marketers should study the consumer’s post purchase behaviour in order to know the satisfaction level of consumers with respect to the product. A person acquires an orientation towards religion, politics, and economics and a sense of personal ambition, does not interact with the parents, still their influence in the unconscious behaviour can be significant. Each role carries a status. Consumer Behaviour deals with various stages that a consumer goes through before purchasing any product or service. Consumer Involvement and buying behavior. The Government procures and sells agricultural commodities such as food grains, cotton, jute, etc. play a key role in shaping consumer behaviour in the following ways: (i) An individual usually discusses with his/her family members before purchasing a particular product or service. (iii) State the benefits of the products in terms of solution to the consumers’ problems. It makes one analyze and rationalize his/her choice. Based on the notion of a universal hierarchy of human needs Dr Abraham Maslow, a clinical psychologist formulated a widely accepted theory of human motivation. The growth of consumerism and consumer legislation emphasises the importance that is given to the consumers. Some buying situations are characterized by low involvement but significantly high brand differences. Example- Johnson & Johnson products are advertised to mothers and not to small children who actually are the consumers. 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